Fungal species are especially important component of biodiversity on earth. Several studies have focused on enumerating the world’s fungal diversity. There are over 1.5 million reported fungal species distributed widely throughout the globe. India has been the hub for such fungi. Fungi play a significant role in the day to day life, besides their utilization in industry, agriculture, medicine, food industry, textiles, bioremediation, biogeochemical cycling, as bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and many other ways. Only a fraction of total fungal wealth has been subjected to scientific scrutiny and mycologists need to unravel the unexplored and hidden wealth. In this review we describe unique fungal niches (air, water, soil), harboring many taxa of well known fungal species, thus highlighting the extent and distribution of fungal biodiversity. Fungal biotechnology has grown as an integral part of the human welfare. In the present review, the occurrence and distribution of fungi in different regions of India has been studied to highlight the extent of their diversity and uniqueness of their habitats.
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